Lit. 'written by hand'. The chirograph or cyrographum in the Latin of the records was an *indenture. Such documents were records of a transaction, e.g. of land changing hands. They were used by the AS, before seals replaced them, allowing all parties a copy of the transaction. The earliest surviving chirograph dates to the early 10c. Details were written twice on one sheet, the sheet then being cut in half, one piece going to each of the parties. In the case of fines, there were three pieces, with the third going to a safe place, like an abbey, or even the king's treasury. Later, rather than a straight line being used to cut the original sheet, an indented path was taken by the cut, hence our word indenture. This system was in principle very similar to the practice of the *tally stick. *Bracton refers to chirographs, noting their value as records. For instance, he affirms their use 'if one makes a gift by charter so that a fine and chirograph is made with every formality in the lord king's court'. He also states that a chirograph 'cannot easily be impugned'. The Latin used of the division was in forma trium cyrographorum = in the form of three chirographs. [< Gr. kheir = hand + graphos = something written] -

Dictionary of Medieval Terms and Phrases. .

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chirograph — Chi ro*graph, n. [Gr. ? written with the hand; chei r hand + gra fein to write.] (Old. Law) (a) A writing which, requiring a counterpart, was engrossed twice on the same piece of parchment, with a space between, in which was written the word… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Chirograph — (griechisch: Handschrift) ist die Bezeichnung für: im römischen Recht eine Vertragsurkunde, die ihre Beweiskraft aus der Handschrift des Verpflichteten bezieht nach dem 10. Jahrhundert auch die Bezeichnung für eine Charta partita briefliche… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Chirográph — (griech.), ursprünglich allgemein »Handschrift«, in der römischen Kaiserzeit aber eine bestimmte Form der Urkunde, der durch die Eigenhändigkeit der Handschrift eine bessere Beweiskraft zukam. Im Mittelalter nannte man so auch die Charta partita… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Chirograph — Chirogrāph (grch.), Handschrift; Schuldschein; chirogrāphisch, was auf handschriftlichen Versicherungen beruht; chirographischer Gläubiger, s.v.w. Buchgläubiger (s.d.) …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Chirograph — A chirograph (cyrograph) is the term given to a medieval document, which has been written in duplicate, triplicate or very occasionally quadruplicate on a single piece of parchment, where the Latin word chirographum (or equivalent) has been… …   Wikipedia

  • chirograph — /kayragrsef/ In civil and canon law, an instrument written out and subscribed by the hand of the party who made it, whether the king or a private person. In old English law, a deed or indenture; also the last part of a fine of land, called more… …   Black's law dictionary

  • Chirograph — Chi|ro|graph 〈[ çi ] m. 16〉 = Chirograf * * * Chirograph   [ç ; griechisch »Handschrift«] das, s/ en, eine Form der Urkunde, deren Beweiskraft in der eigenhändigen Unterschrift oder Unterzeichnung (oft in Kreuzform) lag. Seit dem 10 …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Chirograph — Средневековый документ, выполненный обычно в двух экземплярах одной и той же рукой …   Краткий толковый словарь по полиграфии

  • Chirograph — Chi|ro|graph 〈 [çi ] n.; Gen.: en, Pl.: en〉 = Chirographum; oV …   Lexikalische Deutsches Wörterbuch

  • chirograph — chi·ro·graph …   English syllables

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